Transmigration

Transmigration

- in Human Resources
163

ITS–H-25-3-TRANSMIGRASIThe transmigration program in Indonesia is aimed at spreading the population. The program has been recognized since 1905 when 155 farmers from Kedu, Central Java moved to a new district in Gedong Tataan village, South Lampung. In 1909, a tiny resettlement area was opened in Bengkulu and in 1992 a resettlement area was also opened in the Kota Agung district still in South lampung. The resettlement program had been conducted since the Dutch colonial era with the intention of moving the people from overpopulated villages to unoccupied areas. The population in Java in 1900 reached 28.7 million people.

During the independence era, the transmigration program first resettled 23 families in late 1950 from Java to Lampung. On the eve of the first Five Year Development Cycle (Pelita) in 1969, the transmigration program entered a new phase directed toward developing natural resources in areas out of Java and Bali. The number of transmigrates was increasing during every Pelita. During Pelita I, 46,000 families departed to new resettlement areas and the number was up to 83,000 families during the Pelita II, 536,000 during Pelita III, and 750,000 during Pelita IV.

The transmigration program which was launched as a national movement was solidified by the presence of  Law no. 3, 1972 and the formation of the ministry of Transmigration. In support of the implementation of transmigration programs, the government provided and built facilities and infrastructure including roads, school, religious sites and clinics in the hope that the transmigrates economic position could also develop. There are three categories of transmigrates within transmigration programs which are self-initiative transmigrates, pioneering transmigrates and special transmigrates.

Entering the second long term development era, the transmigration program was developed further among others through the self reliant and initiative transmigration programs.  In this program, those who wished to become transmigrates would be provided land for resettlement but they spent their own money to finance their transportation from their place of origin to their new destination.

Transmigration from Java and Madura has resulted in large numbers of the population moving elsewhere, particularly in Sumatra, Borneo and Papua. Based on 2010 census figures and ethnic prevalence, roughly 4.3 million transmigrates and their descendants live in North Sumatra, 200 thousand in West Sumatra, 1.4 million in Riau, almost a million in Jambi, 2.2 million in South Sumatra, 0.4 million in Bengkulu, 5.7 million in Lampung, 100 thousand in Bangka-Belitung and almost 400 thousand in Riau Islands which totals some 15.5 million in Sumatra alone. In Kalimantan there are some 700 thousand transmigrants and their descendants in West Kalimantan, 400 thousand in Central Kalimantan, almost 500 thousand in South Kalimantan and over a million in East Kalimantan totalling 2.6 million for the whole area. Total Javanese and other transmigrants in Indonesia number roughly 20 million throughout the country.

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