Palapa

Palapa

ITS–The launching of the 12-transponder satellite Palapa A1 in 1976 was a milestone in Indonesian telecommunications history. It did not only thoroughly change the country’s telecommunications system, but also brought great changes on the life of the Indonesian people. With the satellite and the others that later followed it, all steered from a station in Cibinong, West Java, Indonesia accelerated the extension of its telecommunications network to remote places, bringing the archipelagic state into a greater unity. The PalapaA2 orbited the next year. Both Palapa A1 and A2, called the Indonesian satellites of the first generation, survived for nine and 11 years respectively. In 1983, the first satellite of the second generation, 24-transponder Palapa B1 was sent up to its orbit to replace both the worn-out satellites of the first generation. Other second-generation satellites later orbited were Palapa B2P, B2R and B4. The Palapasatellites of the second generation were replaced with the satellites of the third generation or Palapa C. The Palapa C-1 was launched from Cape Canaveral on January 31st, 1996. It was followed by the launching of Palapa C-2 from Kourou in French Guiana on May 15th, 1996.
The Palapa satellites of the C generation have a longer lifespan of about 14 years and are equipped with 34 transponders which make them have better coverage. Their coverage extends westward from Iran to Vladivostok and southward to Sydney in Australia and New Zealanda. Indonesia, with the Pasifik Satelit Nusantara (PT PSN) company, has engaged in transponder businessfor several years. The firm, co-owned by PT Telkom, the state-owned telecommunication company, the initial owner of Palapa Elektrindo Nusantara, a private firm, and some individuals, bought Palapa B-1 in 1991 and renamed it PalapaPasifik.They modified it in such a way that its transponders were accessible to the market in Far East Asia.
In January 1993, another firm, PT Satelit Palapa Indonesia (Satelindo), co-owned by PT Telkom and PT Indosat, both state-owned telecommunications firms, and a privately-owned PT Artha GrahaTelekomindo, was formed to operate over three main aspects of telecommunications: satellites, mobile telephones, and an international call service.

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